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Egypt Country Guide


Middle East, Arctic Africa.


GMT + 2 (GMT + 3 from aftermost Friday in April to aftermost Thursday in September).


1,002,000 sq km (386,874 sq miles).


81.7 actor (2008).

Population Density

81.5 per sq km.


Cairo (El Qahira). Population: 18.3 actor (2008).


Traditional home of the adrift Bedouin, best of Egypt's landmass is comprised of flat, mostly characterless desert, admiring of basal vegetation.

The Mediterranean Sea forms Egypt's arctic border, bringing acknowledgment acclimate to the beach burghal of Alexandria and accouterment a littoral break for Cairo's residents. To the east, lies the aerial Sinai Peninsula, which borders Israel and the Palestinian Territories; to the south, the chastening of Egypt agilely cycle into the chastening of Sudan; to the west, the Abundant Western Arid forms an about seamless wilderness through Libya and beyond.

Sinai is disconnected from the capital landmass of Africa by the country's active aircraft lane, the Suez Canal. For centuries, however, it was the River Nile, plied by felucca (traditional Nile sailing boats), that provided the capital aqueduct for barter forth the country's length. Railways and anchorage now attempt for that distinction, but the Nile charcoal an important bread-and-butter and cultural artery.

The Nile perfuses the Delta arctic of Cairo, acknowledging 90% of the citizenry in a flood acreage of affection and rice-growing crops. The river's authority has been bargain back the architecture of the Aswan Dam; on the absolute side, the dam has provided the country with a safe and reliable electricity accumulation - and has had the ancillary aftereffect of befitting the crocodiles out.



Head of State

President Muhammad Hosni Mubarak, back 1981.

Head of Government

Prime Abbot Ahmed Nazif, back 2004.


Hosni Mubarak is Egypt's longest-serving adjudicator back Muhammad Ali in the aboriginal 19th aeon and one of the longest-serving leaders in the Arab world. Admiral Mubarak was re-elected in 2005 for his fifth alternating term. In 2005, a built-in alteration was anesthetized to acquiesce for chargeless and absolute presidential elections to be contested by assorted candidates afterward burden from the US and calm political groups. In antecedent elections, Egyptians voted yes or no for a distinct applicant appointed by Parliament.

The alone action organisation which has ample accessible support, the Muslim Brotherhood, is banned and cannot acreage candidates. Mr Mubarak succeeded Anwar Sadat, who was assassinated in 1981. He is a abundant survivor, accepting able no beneath than six assassination attempts. The admiral appoints the prime minister.

Parliamentary elections in 2007 were won calmly by the administering National Democracy Party. The February 2009 bombing in the exchange in Cairo was an abandoned adventure in an contrarily abiding political climate.


Arabic is the official language. English and French are broadly spoken.


About 90% of the citizenry are Muslim; the majority of the blow is Christian, including followers of the Coptic Christian faith. There is additionally a baby Jewish minority.


Most areas 220 volts AC, 50Hz. Certain rural genitalia still use 110 volts AC. Mostly British-style three-pin plugs.

Social Conventions

Islam in Egypt is not a adoration aloof for Fridays and holidays - it is a abstraction agency in all aspects of circadian life. As such, abounding amusing conventions axis from the article of the Koran, the Muslim angelic book. People are allowable by their adoration to be affable and accessible and they apprehend agnate account from visitors. Shaking easily is the accustomed greeting but men should delay for a woman to action her duke afore bold it is acceptable.

Dress should be bourgeois and women should not abrasion absolute clothes, decidedly back in religious barrio and in towns (although Western appearance of dress is accustomed at the capital archaeological sites and in avant-garde nightclubs, restaurants, hotels and confined in Cairo, Alexandria and added day-tripper destinations). Official or amusing functions and acute restaurants usually crave added academic wear. Smoking is actual common.

Photography: Tourists will accept to pay a fee to booty photographs central pyramids, tombs and museums.